The shuttle-less can be further classified into the following types: gripper loom, water jet loom, air jet loom, and rapier loom. Among them, the gripper loom consumes the least amount of unit energy, which is followed by the water jet loom. The air jet loom and rapier loom are two weaving machines that consume a large amount of energy. While it is true that energy consumption is not the only factor which influences consumer behavior, there is equally no denying that energy efficiency is a key point that no one can overlook. For this reason, the textile machinery manufacturer must give due consideration to developing energy efficient technologies.
The majority of energy needed for powering the air jet loom has been consumed by the nozzle. Since very early times, many air jet loom manufacturers have done a lot studies on the aide nozzle which were supposed to reduce the total energy consumption of the nozzles. Subsequently, the single-hole, multi-hole, and inverted conic aide nozzles have been put to practical use. A large number of innovative nozzle and air hose designs have contributed to energy efficiency and more effective weft-insertion operation.
As the power electronics begins to replace traditional ways to measure, monitor, and control the distribution and use of energy, many air jet loom manufactures roll out their new techniques and measures on energy saving. Previously, every four to six aide nozzles would be equipped with a solenoid valve. In modern-day air jet loom, every two aide nozzles (relay nozzles) will be attached to one solenoid valve. In addition, the electrical control box is used to control the on or off status of the said valve, in order to jet out the air in a relay manner. This air control manner helps save air by 10 to 15 percent compared to older jet loom models.
In addition to the nozzle, there are other systems in the air jet loom that can use up much energy, such as the weft battening system. The weft beating-up motion can be controlled in one of the two ways: either the crankshaft battening system or conjugate cam beating-up system. The two systems both have pros and cons, though they both can meet the specified requirements and standards for weaving. The conjugate cam battening system is primarily used to weave heavyweight, large-width weaves, while the crankshaft shedding mechanism accounts for the majority of the air jet looms.
The shedding system consumes a smaller percentage yet considerable amount of energy. Whether it is the dobby shedding or cam shedding system, both require large energy consumption. For the same cam shedding systems however, the negative type needs less energy than the positive one.
It is needless to say that the air jet loom contains an air compressor, whether it should be the oil-type air compressor or oil-free type. In general terms, the former gives better performance in operating efficiency, use life, and oil consumption than the latter. Twenty years ago, most of the air jet loom manufacturers chose the oil-free air compressor. In recent years, an increasing number of manufacturers have begun to use oil-type air compressor for its lower price and improved performance. Compared to previous types, modern-day oil type air compressor adopts new lubricating oil to facilitate the cleaning work. Of course this type of air compressor has its shortcomings. The short use life of the lubricating oil dictates that users need to replace it on a regular basis. At the same time, the oil filter screen needs to cleaned and replaced periodically.
Lately, the air compressor manufacturers have also rolled out electronically controlled variable frequency motor and step-less speed regulation air compressor. It is said that such devices can help save energy by up to 10%.